## The Equivalences of the Choi-Jamiolkowski Isomorphism (Part II)

**This is a continuation of ****this post.**

Please read that post to learn what the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism is.

In part 1, we learned about hermicity-preserving linear maps, positive maps, k-positive maps, and completely positive maps. Now let’s see what other types of linear maps have interesting equivalences through the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism. Recall that the notation C_{Φ} is used to represent the Choi matrix of the linear map Φ.

### 6. Entanglement Breaking Maps / Separable Quantum States

An *entanglement breaking map* is defined as a completely positive map Φ with the property that (id_{n} ⊗ Φ)(ρ) is a separable quantum state whenever ρ is a quantum state (i.e., a density operator). A separable quantum state σ is one that can be written in the form

where {p_{i}} forms a probability distribution (i.e., p_{i} ≥ 0 for all i and the p_{i}‘s sum to 1) and each σ_{i} and τ_{i} is a density operator. It turns out that the Choi-Jamiolkowski equivalence for entanglement-breaking maps is very natural — Φ is entanglement breaking if and only if C_{Φ} is separable. Because it is known that determining whether or not a given state is separable is NP-HARD [1], it follows that determining whether or not a given linear map is entanglement breaking is also NP-HARD. Nonetheless, there are several nice characterizations of entanglement breaking maps. For example, Φ is entanglement breaking if and only if it can be written in the form

where each operator A_{i} has rank 1 (recall from Section 4 of the previous post that every completely positive map can be written in this form for *some* operators A_{i} — the rank 1 condition is what makes the map entanglement breaking). For more properties of entanglement breaking maps, the interested reader is encouraged to read [2].

**7. k-Partially Entanglement Breaking Maps / Quantum States with Schmidt Number at Most k**

The natural generalization of entanglement breaking maps are *k-partially entanglement breaking maps*, which are completely positive maps Φ with the property that (id_{n} ⊗ Φ)(ρ) always has Schmidt number [3] at most k for any density operator ρ. Recall that an operator has Schmidt number 1 if and only if it is separable, so the k = 1 case recovers exactly the entanglement breaking maps of Section 6. The set of operators associated with the k-partially entanglement breaking maps via the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism are exactly what we would expect: the operators with Schmidt number no larger than k. In fact, pretty much all of the properties of entanglement breaking maps generalize in a completely natural way to this situation. For example, a map is k-partially entanglement breaking if and only if it can be written in the form

where each operator A_{i} has rank no greater than k. For more information about k-partially entanglement breaking maps, the interested reader is pointed to [4]. Additionally, there is an interesting geometric relationship between k-positive maps (see Section 5 of the previous post) and k-partially entanglement breaking maps that is explored in this note and in [5].

### 8. Unital Maps / Operators with Left Partial Trace Equal to Identity

A linear map Φ is said to be *unital* if it sends the identity operator to the identity operator — that is, if Φ(I_{n}) = I_{m}. It is a simple exercise in linear algebra to show that Φ is unital if and only if

where Tr_{1} denotes the partial trace over the first subsystem. In fact, it is not difficult to show that Tr_{1}(C_{Φ}) always equals exactly Φ(I_{n}).

### 9. Trace-Preserving Maps / Operators with Right Partial Trace Equal to Identity

In quantum information theory, maps that are *trace-preserving* (i.e., maps Φ such that Tr(Φ(X)) = Tr(X) for every operator X ∈ M_{n}) are of particular interest because quantum channels are modeled by completely positive trace-preserving maps (see Section 4 of the previous post to learn about completely positive maps). Well, some simple linear algebra shows that the map Φ is trace-preserving if and only if

where Tr_{2} denotes the partial trace over the second subsystem. The reason for the close relationship between this property and the property of Section 8 is that unital maps and trace-preserving maps are dual to each other in the Hilbert-Schmidt inner product.

### 10. Completely Co-Positive Maps / Positive Partial Transpose Operators

A map Φ such that T○Φ is completely positive, where T represents the transpose map, is called a *completely co-positive* map. Thanks to Section 4 of the previous post, we know that Φ is completely co-positive if and only if the Choi matrix of T○Φ is positive semi-definite. Another way of saying this is that

This condition says that the operator C_{Φ} has positive partial transpose (or PPT), a property that is of great interest in quantum information theory because of its connection with the problem of determining whether or not a given quantum state is separable. In particular, any quantum state that is separable must have positive partial transpose (a condition that has become known as the Peres-Horodecki criterion). If n = 2 and m ≤ 3, then the converse is also true: any PPT state is necessarily separable [6]. It follows via our equivalences of Sections 4 and 6 that any entanglement breaking map is necessarily completely co-positive. Conversely, if n = 2 and m ≤ 3 then any map that is both completely positive and completely co-positive must be entanglement breaking.

### 11. Entanglement Binding Maps / Bound Entangled States

A bound entangled state is a state that is entangled (i.e., not separable) yet can not be transformed via local operations and classical communication to a pure maximally entangled state. In other words, they are entangled but have zero distillable entanglement. Currently, the only states that are known to be bound entangled are states with positive partial transpose — it is an open question whether or not other such states exist.

An entanglement binding map [7] is a completely positive map Φ such that (id_{n} ⊗ Φ)(ρ) is bound entangled for any quantum state ρ. It turns out that a map is entanglement binding if and only if its Choi matrix C_{Φ} is bound entangled. Thus, via the result of Section 10 we see that a map is entanglement binding if it is both completely positive and completely co-positive. It is currently unknown if there exist other entanglement binding maps.

**References:**

- L. Gurvits,
*Classical deterministic complexity of Edmonds’ Problem and quantum entanglement*, Proceedings of the thirty-fifth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing, 10-19 (2003). arXiv:quant-ph/0303055v1 - M. Horodecki, P. W. Shor, M. B. Ruskai,
*General Entanglement Breaking Channels*, Rev. Math. Phys**15**, 629–641 (2003). arXiv:quant-ph/0302031v2 - B. Terhal, P. Horodecki,
*A Schmidt number for density matrices*, Phys. Rev. A Rapid Communications Vol.**61**, 040301 (2000). arXiv:quant-ph/9911117v4 - D. Chruscinski, A. Kossakowski,
*On partially entanglement breaking channels*, Open Sys. Information Dyn.**13**, 17–26 (2006). arXiv:quant-ph/0511244v1 - L. Skowronek, E. Stormer, K. Zyczkowski,
*Cones of positive maps and their duality relations*, J. Math. Phys.**50**, 062106 (2009). arXiv:0902.4877v1 [quant-ph] - M. Horodecki, P. Horodecki, R. Horodecki,
*Separability of Mixed States: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions*, Physics Letters A**223**, 1–8 (1996). arXiv:quant-ph/9605038v2 - P. Horodecki, M. Horodecki, R. Horodecki,
*Binding entanglement channels*, J.Mod.Opt.**47**, 347–354 (2000). arXiv:quant-ph/9904092v1

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